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Issues <subtitle type="text"></subtitle> <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" href="http://www.ifrtd.org"/> <id>http://www.ifrtd.org/index.php/issues</id> <updated>2017-10-22T06:22:56+00:00</updated> <generator uri="http://joomla.org" version="2.5">Joomla! - Open Source Content Management</generator> <link rel="self" type="application/atom+xml" href="http://www.ifrtd.org/index.php/issues?format=feed&type=atom"/> <entry> <title>Agriculture 2014-12-01T13:15:59+00:00 2014-12-01T13:15:59+00:00 http://www.ifrtd.org/index.php/issues-2/67-agriculture Super User ngugimode@yahoo.com <div class="feed-description"><p>What do you do as a poor rural farmer when you don't have year-round access to a physical market due to lack of appropriate transport services or infrastructure? And did you know that currently, 70% of the agricultural output of Sub-saharan Africa is headloaded, mainly by women who make up the majority of agricultural smallholders? Also, in light of the current food crisis, a small survey carried out by the International Fund for Agricultural Development has illustrated that in Mozambique, food price increases have clearly followed increases in transportation costs and this has had a detrimental impact on food production and consumption.</p> <p>Three quarters of the world's chronically poor and hungry people live in rural areas and rely on agriculture to feed themselves and their families. Agriculture remains the backbone of many economies in developing countries and not one country has managed a rapid improvement in poverty levels without increasing agricultural productivity. It has been necessary for this increase in productivity to go hand-in-hand with investments in rural infrastructure and effective rural transport systems in order to improve the value chain and ensure that products are marketed in an efficient and effective way.</p> <p>So far, the majority of rural and agricultural development programmes have concentrated on increasing agricultural production in an environment that is hampered by extremely limited access to markets and other services. This has resulted in these programmes having a limited impact on growth and poverty reduction; In the few cases where programmes have invested in transport infrastructure (mainly roads) the improvements have been significant. In the IFAD funded access road component within the Zambian Smallholder Enterprise Development and Marketing Programme (SHEMP), the number of traders doubled in the 5 year programme (2002 - 2007) and the price of Maize in the area increased by 50%. In another IFAD funded project in Bangladesh, a labour-based roads programme led to an increase of 19% in agricultural yield and a reduction in transport costs of 39%.</p> <p>More recently, the International Fund for Agriculture Development (<a target="_blank">IFAD</a>) has initiated a comprehensive review (1994 - 2006) of the investments they have made in rural transport and travel within their agricultural programmes. Prompted by their country programmes, the review's main objective was to take stock of the achievements, lessons learnt, experiences and impacts of the investments.</p> <p>Some of the preliminary findings of the review, shared during a joint IFAD, IFRTD and ILO workshop in Rome on 24-25 June 2008, are that despite significant investments of an average of 13 million USD a year (constituting 7% of all market access interventions), so far the overall performance is unsatisfactory. This is mainly due to the following reasons:</p> <p>(1) The lack of a systematic approach to RTT in agricultural programmes.</p> <p>(2) A lack of integrated planning</p> <p>(3) A strong focus on road construction and rehabilitation</p> <p><strong>References</strong> :</p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gatesfoundation.org/GlobalDevelopment/Agriculture/Ag_Backgrounder.htm">Agricultural Development</a> at the Gates Foundation</p> <p>Andreski, Adam, 2007. "<a href="images/ifrtd/Downloads/issues/SHEMP_roads_Technical_Paper.doc" target="_blank">Market Access Improvement in Zambia</a>." Technical paper. (MS Word 379 kb)</p> <p>IFAD_ILO_IFRTD Workshop on Rural Roads, Transportation and Travel, Workshop, Rome, 24-25 June, 2008. For full report proceedings please click <a target="_blank" href="http://ifrtd.gn.apc.org/new/issues/RTT_workshop_proceedingsv.pdf">here</a>. (4.4 Mb. Pdf)</p> <p>World Bank, 2007 “ <em> <a target="_blank" href="http://tinyurl.com/5jd2a9"> Roundtable on Mainstreaming Social and Gender Dimensions in Transport Programs: Moving the Agenda Forward </a> .” </em> World Bank, Washington DC</p></div> <div class="feed-description"><p>What do you do as a poor rural farmer when you don't have year-round access to a physical market due to lack of appropriate transport services or infrastructure? And did you know that currently, 70% of the agricultural output of Sub-saharan Africa is headloaded, mainly by women who make up the majority of agricultural smallholders? Also, in light of the current food crisis, a small survey carried out by the International Fund for Agricultural Development has illustrated that in Mozambique, food price increases have clearly followed increases in transportation costs and this has had a detrimental impact on food production and consumption.</p> <p>Three quarters of the world's chronically poor and hungry people live in rural areas and rely on agriculture to feed themselves and their families. Agriculture remains the backbone of many economies in developing countries and not one country has managed a rapid improvement in poverty levels without increasing agricultural productivity. It has been necessary for this increase in productivity to go hand-in-hand with investments in rural infrastructure and effective rural transport systems in order to improve the value chain and ensure that products are marketed in an efficient and effective way.</p> <p>So far, the majority of rural and agricultural development programmes have concentrated on increasing agricultural production in an environment that is hampered by extremely limited access to markets and other services. This has resulted in these programmes having a limited impact on growth and poverty reduction; In the few cases where programmes have invested in transport infrastructure (mainly roads) the improvements have been significant. In the IFAD funded access road component within the Zambian Smallholder Enterprise Development and Marketing Programme (SHEMP), the number of traders doubled in the 5 year programme (2002 - 2007) and the price of Maize in the area increased by 50%. In another IFAD funded project in Bangladesh, a labour-based roads programme led to an increase of 19% in agricultural yield and a reduction in transport costs of 39%.</p> <p>More recently, the International Fund for Agriculture Development (<a target="_blank">IFAD</a>) has initiated a comprehensive review (1994 - 2006) of the investments they have made in rural transport and travel within their agricultural programmes. Prompted by their country programmes, the review's main objective was to take stock of the achievements, lessons learnt, experiences and impacts of the investments.</p> <p>Some of the preliminary findings of the review, shared during a joint IFAD, IFRTD and ILO workshop in Rome on 24-25 June 2008, are that despite significant investments of an average of 13 million USD a year (constituting 7% of all market access interventions), so far the overall performance is unsatisfactory. This is mainly due to the following reasons:</p> <p>(1) The lack of a systematic approach to RTT in agricultural programmes.</p> <p>(2) A lack of integrated planning</p> <p>(3) A strong focus on road construction and rehabilitation</p> <p><strong>References</strong> :</p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gatesfoundation.org/GlobalDevelopment/Agriculture/Ag_Backgrounder.htm">Agricultural Development</a> at the Gates Foundation</p> <p>Andreski, Adam, 2007. "<a href="images/ifrtd/Downloads/issues/SHEMP_roads_Technical_Paper.doc" target="_blank">Market Access Improvement in Zambia</a>." Technical paper. (MS Word 379 kb)</p> <p>IFAD_ILO_IFRTD Workshop on Rural Roads, Transportation and Travel, Workshop, Rome, 24-25 June, 2008. For full report proceedings please click <a target="_blank" href="http://ifrtd.gn.apc.org/new/issues/RTT_workshop_proceedingsv.pdf">here</a>. (4.4 Mb. Pdf)</p> <p>World Bank, 2007 “ <em> <a target="_blank" href="http://tinyurl.com/5jd2a9"> Roundtable on Mainstreaming Social and Gender Dimensions in Transport Programs: Moving the Agenda Forward </a> .” </em> World Bank, Washington DC</p></div> Animal Traction 2014-12-01T13:15:59+00:00 2014-12-01T13:15:59+00:00 http://www.ifrtd.org/index.php/issues-2/68-animal-traction Super User ngugimode@yahoo.com <div class="feed-description"><p><strong> The importance of animal traction in the world <br /> </strong> The first use of animal power took place some four thousand years B.C. In the six ensuing millennia 21 species of domestic animals have been used for pulling agricultural implements, goods and passenger vehicles, blocks of wood and for carrying loads, for riding and for use with a saddle. Some of these animals are used to supply necessary energy in extraordinary situations, such as for the haulage of blocks in the forest or the use of the yak and the llama to transport loads at altitudes higher than 4,000 metres above sea level.</p> <p>It is estimated that more than 400 million work animals are in use, mainly in developing countries. Of these 300 million are cattle, 80 million belong to the horse family and the remainder are drawn from all the other types of animals used for traction. 50% of cultivated land is worked using these animals and they are used for pulling 25 million vehicles (Rawaswamy, 1985). Of the total energy required for agricultural production, 65.5% is produced by man, 27.3% by animals and only 7.16% by tractors (Holmes, 1980).</p> <p><strong> Draught animals and the repair of tertiary rural roads <br /> </strong> To the uses mentioned above, can be added the repair of rural roads using equipment designed to be drawn by oxen and horses. This technology began to be developed in 1997 in Nicaragua, Honduras and El Salvador and a set of tools was developed which enables work on the repair and maintenance of local roads to be carried out that complies with the technical guidelines laid down for this type of road. In 2000 an exchange of experience took place with the North American organisation, Tillers International, which promotes animal traction and also uses similar technology, used by the Amish communities living in Wisconsin.</p> <p>The road repair tool kit consists of a ripping plough, a terracer with adjustable angles, a grader (supplied by Tillers), dump carts, a rake, an irrigation tank and a compacting roller. The technology was evaluated by USAID and the results indicated the feasibility of using this technology. Compared with projects based solely on the intensive use of manpower, it showed the following results - more rapid progress in work and better quality; ease in the use of equipment by workers, humanisation of work; low costs per kilometre repaired, low costs for the maintenance of equipment and suitability for use on a wide variety of soils, with the exception of very hard and rocky terrain. More recently, World Bank, KFW and Japanese government agents have reached the same conclusion.</p> <p>For more information please look at <a target="_blank" href="http://www.relata.org.ni/">http://www.relata.org.ni</a></p> <p><em> This contribution was written by Rafael Guerrero <br /> Email: </em> <a href="mailto:relata@relata.org.ni">relata@relata.org.ni</a></p></div> <div class="feed-description"><p><strong> The importance of animal traction in the world <br /> </strong> The first use of animal power took place some four thousand years B.C. In the six ensuing millennia 21 species of domestic animals have been used for pulling agricultural implements, goods and passenger vehicles, blocks of wood and for carrying loads, for riding and for use with a saddle. Some of these animals are used to supply necessary energy in extraordinary situations, such as for the haulage of blocks in the forest or the use of the yak and the llama to transport loads at altitudes higher than 4,000 metres above sea level.</p> <p>It is estimated that more than 400 million work animals are in use, mainly in developing countries. Of these 300 million are cattle, 80 million belong to the horse family and the remainder are drawn from all the other types of animals used for traction. 50% of cultivated land is worked using these animals and they are used for pulling 25 million vehicles (Rawaswamy, 1985). Of the total energy required for agricultural production, 65.5% is produced by man, 27.3% by animals and only 7.16% by tractors (Holmes, 1980).</p> <p><strong> Draught animals and the repair of tertiary rural roads <br /> </strong> To the uses mentioned above, can be added the repair of rural roads using equipment designed to be drawn by oxen and horses. This technology began to be developed in 1997 in Nicaragua, Honduras and El Salvador and a set of tools was developed which enables work on the repair and maintenance of local roads to be carried out that complies with the technical guidelines laid down for this type of road. In 2000 an exchange of experience took place with the North American organisation, Tillers International, which promotes animal traction and also uses similar technology, used by the Amish communities living in Wisconsin.</p> <p>The road repair tool kit consists of a ripping plough, a terracer with adjustable angles, a grader (supplied by Tillers), dump carts, a rake, an irrigation tank and a compacting roller. The technology was evaluated by USAID and the results indicated the feasibility of using this technology. Compared with projects based solely on the intensive use of manpower, it showed the following results - more rapid progress in work and better quality; ease in the use of equipment by workers, humanisation of work; low costs per kilometre repaired, low costs for the maintenance of equipment and suitability for use on a wide variety of soils, with the exception of very hard and rocky terrain. More recently, World Bank, KFW and Japanese government agents have reached the same conclusion.</p> <p>For more information please look at <a target="_blank" href="http://www.relata.org.ni/">http://www.relata.org.ni</a></p> <p><em> This contribution was written by Rafael Guerrero <br /> Email: </em> <a href="mailto:relata@relata.org.ni">relata@relata.org.ni</a></p></div> Bicycles 2014-12-01T13:15:59+00:00 2014-12-01T13:15:59+00:00 http://www.ifrtd.org/index.php/issues-2/69-bicycles Super User ngugimode@yahoo.com <div class="feed-description"><p><img alt="coming-soon" src="images/ifrtd/coming-soon.jpg" height="257" width="734" /></p></div> <div class="feed-description"><p><img alt="coming-soon" src="images/ifrtd/coming-soon.jpg" height="257" width="734" /></p></div> Cable Cars 2014-12-01T13:15:59+00:00 2014-12-01T13:15:59+00:00 http://www.ifrtd.org/index.php/issues-2/70-cable-cars Super User ngugimode@yahoo.com <div class="feed-description"><p><img alt="coming-soon" src="images/ifrtd/coming-soon.jpg" height="257" width="734" /></p></div> <div class="feed-description"><p><img alt="coming-soon" src="images/ifrtd/coming-soon.jpg" height="257" width="734" /></p></div> Children’s Mobility 2014-12-01T13:15:59+00:00 2014-12-01T13:15:59+00:00 http://www.ifrtd.org/index.php/issues-2/71-children-s-mobility Super User ngugimode@yahoo.com <div class="feed-description">[bubble background="#FFF" color="#666" border="3px solid #ccc" author="By Sharmla Rama, September 2005"] <p align="left">A review of literature on children's mobility and transport needs shows that this is a relatively under-researched area. Available studies focus on travel to and from school and road safety, with particular emphasis on children residing in urban areas of developed countres. Very little attention is given to children's mobility needs and constraints in rural areas of developing countries. An area seldom considered in case studies on children and childhood, or theorised within a child rights framework, is the impact of a lack of transport infrastructure on children's development, well being, and their livelihood contexts.</p> <p align="left">Recent studies show childrens transport needs are not only related to their need to access educational facilities and care related services but also dependent on the livelihood or household activities they engage in (Turner &amp; Kwakye, 1996, Rama 1999, Robson 2004, Porter 2004). Studies on children's time use show that birth order, family size and composition, sex composition of the sibling group, age, gender,social class, and locale all have an impact on the types of activities in which children engage, as well as the amount of time they spend on the activities (Ben-Arieh &amp; Ofir, 2002; and Rama and Richter, 2005). Girls in particular shoulder a heavier burden of household work. Many of the activities girls engage in are undertaken on foot, are labour intensive, time consuming, involve head loading, and/or may include the simultaneous activity of carrying children on their backs. In households owning, for example, bicycles or animal driven carts these are usually exclusively used by boys and males.</p> <p align="left">The available studies on children's mobility and transport indicate that more investigation is needed to determine among others the impact of mobility and access constraints for children's, particularly girl's, development, well-being, participation in education and, in future, labour market activities (Porter &amp; Blaufuss, 2004). The 1999 UNICEF State of the World's Children report, for example, cites studies in Nepal that show for every kilometer a child walks to school the likelihood of school attendance drops by 2.5%. This figure rises for girls and children with disabilities. Fatigue, exhaustion, risk of dangers such as sexual assault and road accidents are some of the contributory factors to non-attendance or irregular attendance. Similarly a recent report on education in South African rural communities (Nelson Mandela Foundation 2005) found that children travelling considerable distances are being turned away from school for being late. In most instances the resaon for being late is that children did household work such as the collection of water, or wood/dung before leaving for school. Barriers that constrain or exclude children from accessing educational facilities, health or welfare services impacts not only on their development and well-being but also infringe on their rights.</p> <p align="left">What this suggests is that there needs to be a shift to more child centred methodologies where the child rather than the family, household or school is the central theoretical and analytical unit of observation, measurement and interpretation. when we begin to conceptualise and identify children's mobility and accessibility constraints and needs in a child-centred manner, we can also factor into the analysis and theorising, aspects relating to gender,locale, class divisions, and population group, as well as issues such as children's development trajectories, and the relevance of age or sub group dissaggregation of information. For example statistics on infants and toddlers, pre-schoolers, children in school care, those not in school and adolescents. Within this framework the child's actions, needs, experiences, and social world are the immediate focus. This approach not only presents a challenge to developing appropriate and affordable modes of travel for children, but also issues of how to mainstream the transport needs of children into transport planning and policymaking.</p> [/bubble] <p align="left"> Child, Youth and Family Development (CYFD) Research Programme <br /> Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), South Africa <br /> <strong>Email:</strong> <a href="mailto:srama@hsrc.ac.za">srama@hsrc.ac.za</a></p> <p align="left"><strong> <br /> References: </strong></p> <p align="left">Ben-Arieh, A &amp; Ofir, A, 2002. Opinion, dialogue review: Time for (more) time use studies studying the daily activities of children, <em>Childhood</em>. Vol.9. No. 2, pp 225-248 <br /> <br /> Francavilla, F &amp; Lyon, S 2003, <em>Household chores and Child Health: Preliminary evidence from six countries</em>, Draft report prepared for the Understanding Children's Work Project (UCW), an Inter-Agency Research Project (UNICEF, ILO and World Bank) project. <br /> <br /> James, A &amp; Prout, A (eds) 1990, <em>Constructing and reconstructing childhood: Contemporary issues in the sociological study of childhood</em>. London. Falmer Press <br /> <br /> Nelson Mandela Foundation, report researched by the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) and the Education Policy Consortium (EPC) 2005, <em> Emerging Voices: A report on education in South African Rural Communities</em>, Pretoria, HSRC Press. <br /> <br /> Porter G &amp; Blaufussm K 2004, <em>Children, transport and traffic in southern Ghana</em>, Revised version of a paper presented at the international conference on Children, transport and traffic, Copenhagen, May 2002, <br /> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.dur.ac.uk/k.u.blaufuss/child%20mobility/trial.htm">http://www.dur.ac.uk/k.u.blaufuss/child%20mobility/trial.htm</a></p> <p align="left">Porter G 2004, <em>Youth, mobility and rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa</em>, a paper presented at the UK African Studies Association Biennial Conference, University of London, September <a target="_blank" href="http://www.dur.ac.uk/k.u.blaufuss/child%20mobility/trial.htm">http://www.dur.ac.uk/k.u.blaufuss/child%20mobility/trial.htm</a></p> <p align="left">Rama, S &amp; Richter, LM, 2005, Children's household work as a contribution to the well being of the family and household, Forthcoming in AY Amoateng, &amp; Richter LM (eds)<em> Families and Households in South Africa</em>, Human Sciences Research Council. <br /> <br /> Rama, S 1999, <em>The influence of transport on the life chances and experiences of school goers: A case study of the Pietermaritzburg District.</em> Unpublished Masters Dissertation submitted for the degree of Master of Arts, in the Department of Sociology, Faculty of Arts, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg (University of KwaZulu-Natal). <br /> <br /> Robson, E 2003, Children at work in rural northern Nigeria: patterns of age, space and gender. Journal of Rural Studies, Vol 20. Issue 2, April 2004. <br /> <br /> Turner, J &amp; Kwakye, E 1996, Transport and Survival Strategies in a Developing Economy: Case evidence from Accra, Ghana, <em>Journal of Transport Geography</em>, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 161-168.</p> <p align="left">Vasconcellos, EA, 1997, Rural transport and access to education in developing countries: Policy issues. Journal of Transport Geography, 5(2), 127-136</p> </div> <div class="feed-description">[bubble background="#FFF" color="#666" border="3px solid #ccc" author="By Sharmla Rama, September 2005"] <p align="left">A review of literature on children's mobility and transport needs shows that this is a relatively under-researched area. Available studies focus on travel to and from school and road safety, with particular emphasis on children residing in urban areas of developed countres. Very little attention is given to children's mobility needs and constraints in rural areas of developing countries. An area seldom considered in case studies on children and childhood, or theorised within a child rights framework, is the impact of a lack of transport infrastructure on children's development, well being, and their livelihood contexts.</p> <p align="left">Recent studies show childrens transport needs are not only related to their need to access educational facilities and care related services but also dependent on the livelihood or household activities they engage in (Turner &amp; Kwakye, 1996, Rama 1999, Robson 2004, Porter 2004). Studies on children's time use show that birth order, family size and composition, sex composition of the sibling group, age, gender,social class, and locale all have an impact on the types of activities in which children engage, as well as the amount of time they spend on the activities (Ben-Arieh &amp; Ofir, 2002; and Rama and Richter, 2005). Girls in particular shoulder a heavier burden of household work. Many of the activities girls engage in are undertaken on foot, are labour intensive, time consuming, involve head loading, and/or may include the simultaneous activity of carrying children on their backs. In households owning, for example, bicycles or animal driven carts these are usually exclusively used by boys and males.</p> <p align="left">The available studies on children's mobility and transport indicate that more investigation is needed to determine among others the impact of mobility and access constraints for children's, particularly girl's, development, well-being, participation in education and, in future, labour market activities (Porter &amp; Blaufuss, 2004). The 1999 UNICEF State of the World's Children report, for example, cites studies in Nepal that show for every kilometer a child walks to school the likelihood of school attendance drops by 2.5%. This figure rises for girls and children with disabilities. Fatigue, exhaustion, risk of dangers such as sexual assault and road accidents are some of the contributory factors to non-attendance or irregular attendance. Similarly a recent report on education in South African rural communities (Nelson Mandela Foundation 2005) found that children travelling considerable distances are being turned away from school for being late. In most instances the resaon for being late is that children did household work such as the collection of water, or wood/dung before leaving for school. Barriers that constrain or exclude children from accessing educational facilities, health or welfare services impacts not only on their development and well-being but also infringe on their rights.</p> <p align="left">What this suggests is that there needs to be a shift to more child centred methodologies where the child rather than the family, household or school is the central theoretical and analytical unit of observation, measurement and interpretation. when we begin to conceptualise and identify children's mobility and accessibility constraints and needs in a child-centred manner, we can also factor into the analysis and theorising, aspects relating to gender,locale, class divisions, and population group, as well as issues such as children's development trajectories, and the relevance of age or sub group dissaggregation of information. For example statistics on infants and toddlers, pre-schoolers, children in school care, those not in school and adolescents. Within this framework the child's actions, needs, experiences, and social world are the immediate focus. This approach not only presents a challenge to developing appropriate and affordable modes of travel for children, but also issues of how to mainstream the transport needs of children into transport planning and policymaking.</p> [/bubble] <p align="left"> Child, Youth and Family Development (CYFD) Research Programme <br /> Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), South Africa <br /> <strong>Email:</strong> <a href="mailto:srama@hsrc.ac.za">srama@hsrc.ac.za</a></p> <p align="left"><strong> <br /> References: </strong></p> <p align="left">Ben-Arieh, A &amp; Ofir, A, 2002. Opinion, dialogue review: Time for (more) time use studies studying the daily activities of children, <em>Childhood</em>. Vol.9. No. 2, pp 225-248 <br /> <br /> Francavilla, F &amp; Lyon, S 2003, <em>Household chores and Child Health: Preliminary evidence from six countries</em>, Draft report prepared for the Understanding Children's Work Project (UCW), an Inter-Agency Research Project (UNICEF, ILO and World Bank) project. <br /> <br /> James, A &amp; Prout, A (eds) 1990, <em>Constructing and reconstructing childhood: Contemporary issues in the sociological study of childhood</em>. London. Falmer Press <br /> <br /> Nelson Mandela Foundation, report researched by the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) and the Education Policy Consortium (EPC) 2005, <em> Emerging Voices: A report on education in South African Rural Communities</em>, Pretoria, HSRC Press. <br /> <br /> Porter G &amp; Blaufussm K 2004, <em>Children, transport and traffic in southern Ghana</em>, Revised version of a paper presented at the international conference on Children, transport and traffic, Copenhagen, May 2002, <br /> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.dur.ac.uk/k.u.blaufuss/child%20mobility/trial.htm">http://www.dur.ac.uk/k.u.blaufuss/child%20mobility/trial.htm</a></p> <p align="left">Porter G 2004, <em>Youth, mobility and rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa</em>, a paper presented at the UK African Studies Association Biennial Conference, University of London, September <a target="_blank" href="http://www.dur.ac.uk/k.u.blaufuss/child%20mobility/trial.htm">http://www.dur.ac.uk/k.u.blaufuss/child%20mobility/trial.htm</a></p> <p align="left">Rama, S &amp; Richter, LM, 2005, Children's household work as a contribution to the well being of the family and household, Forthcoming in AY Amoateng, &amp; Richter LM (eds)<em> Families and Households in South Africa</em>, Human Sciences Research Council. <br /> <br /> Rama, S 1999, <em>The influence of transport on the life chances and experiences of school goers: A case study of the Pietermaritzburg District.</em> Unpublished Masters Dissertation submitted for the degree of Master of Arts, in the Department of Sociology, Faculty of Arts, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg (University of KwaZulu-Natal). <br /> <br /> Robson, E 2003, Children at work in rural northern Nigeria: patterns of age, space and gender. Journal of Rural Studies, Vol 20. Issue 2, April 2004. <br /> <br /> Turner, J &amp; Kwakye, E 1996, Transport and Survival Strategies in a Developing Economy: Case evidence from Accra, Ghana, <em>Journal of Transport Geography</em>, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 161-168.</p> <p align="left">Vasconcellos, EA, 1997, Rural transport and access to education in developing countries: Policy issues. Journal of Transport Geography, 5(2), 127-136</p> </div> Climate Change 2014-12-01T13:15:59+00:00 2014-12-01T13:15:59+00:00 http://www.ifrtd.org/index.php/issues-2/72-climate-change Super User ngugimode@yahoo.com <div class="feed-description"><p><img alt="coming-soon" src="images/ifrtd/coming-soon.jpg" height="257" width="734" /></p></div> <div class="feed-description"><p><img alt="coming-soon" src="images/ifrtd/coming-soon.jpg" height="257" width="734" /></p></div> Community Participation 2014-12-01T13:15:59+00:00 2014-12-01T13:15:59+00:00 http://www.ifrtd.org/index.php/issues-2/73-community-participation Super User ngugimode@yahoo.com <div class="feed-description"><p>In areas where the transport needs of poor and marginalised people are overlooked by national transport policies, a shift from communities as passive recipients to active participants could provide the catalyst for sustainable transport solutions. Community participation in the planning implementation, maintenance and evaluation of transport interventions can ensure a response appropriate to local mobility needs that will utilise local knowledge, generate solutions applicable to local resources, improve the transparency and acceptability of transport investments, contribute to capacity building and reduce dependency.</p> <h2>Key Resources:<strong> </strong></h2> <p>I<strong>FRTD's Forum News issue 12.2 (Sept 05) focuses on community participation in transport management. Articles include:</strong> <br /> Promoting Dialogue between Community and the State in Nicaragua <br /> Community Parliaments in Kenya <br /> Integrating Water Transport in Bangladesh <br /> Rehabilitating a Milk Road in Peru <br /> <a target="_blank" href="images/ifrtd/Downloads/issues/f_news_12_2.pdf">Click here to download this issue of Forum News (pdf 114kb) </a><br /> <br /> <strong>An International Workshop on Community Participation in Transport Management</strong> <br /> Cajamarca, Peru. 5-7 April 2005 <br /> <a href="index.php?option=com_content&amp;view=article&amp;id=74:community-participation-in-transport-management&amp;catid=24:issues-related">Click here for more information and the workshop report </a><br /> <br /> <strong>The Toolkit for Promoting the Sustainability of Rural Transport and Development. </strong> Presented as a user friendly tri-lingual CD-Rom (English, French and Spanish), this toolkit demands a greater understanding of the political and social relationships between stakeholders and promotes recognition of the interdependence of rehabilitation and maintenance as a condition for sustainability. It includes case studies from Latin America, Africa and Asia to highlight lessons learned from community transport initiatives. The toolkit is available free of charge on request. <a href="index.php?option=com_content&amp;view=article&amp;id=75:toolkit-for-promoting-sustainability-of-rural-transport-infrastructure&amp;catid=24:issues-related">Click here for more details</a></p> <p><strong>Boda Boda Bicycle Transport Services.</strong> The Ngware Bicycle Transporters Youth Group in Kisumu Kenya earn a living by providing both cargo and passenger services using bicycles. For <a href="index.php?option=com_content&amp;view=article&amp;id=101:transport-services&amp;catid=23:issues&amp;Itemid=199">more information about the development and organisation of this organisation click here</a></p></div> <div class="feed-description"><p>In areas where the transport needs of poor and marginalised people are overlooked by national transport policies, a shift from communities as passive recipients to active participants could provide the catalyst for sustainable transport solutions. Community participation in the planning implementation, maintenance and evaluation of transport interventions can ensure a response appropriate to local mobility needs that will utilise local knowledge, generate solutions applicable to local resources, improve the transparency and acceptability of transport investments, contribute to capacity building and reduce dependency.</p> <h2>Key Resources:<strong> </strong></h2> <p>I<strong>FRTD's Forum News issue 12.2 (Sept 05) focuses on community participation in transport management. Articles include:</strong> <br /> Promoting Dialogue between Community and the State in Nicaragua <br /> Community Parliaments in Kenya <br /> Integrating Water Transport in Bangladesh <br /> Rehabilitating a Milk Road in Peru <br /> <a target="_blank" href="images/ifrtd/Downloads/issues/f_news_12_2.pdf">Click here to download this issue of Forum News (pdf 114kb) </a><br /> <br /> <strong>An International Workshop on Community Participation in Transport Management</strong> <br /> Cajamarca, Peru. 5-7 April 2005 <br /> <a href="index.php?option=com_content&amp;view=article&amp;id=74:community-participation-in-transport-management&amp;catid=24:issues-related">Click here for more information and the workshop report </a><br /> <br /> <strong>The Toolkit for Promoting the Sustainability of Rural Transport and Development. </strong> Presented as a user friendly tri-lingual CD-Rom (English, French and Spanish), this toolkit demands a greater understanding of the political and social relationships between stakeholders and promotes recognition of the interdependence of rehabilitation and maintenance as a condition for sustainability. It includes case studies from Latin America, Africa and Asia to highlight lessons learned from community transport initiatives. The toolkit is available free of charge on request. <a href="index.php?option=com_content&amp;view=article&amp;id=75:toolkit-for-promoting-sustainability-of-rural-transport-infrastructure&amp;catid=24:issues-related">Click here for more details</a></p> <p><strong>Boda Boda Bicycle Transport Services.</strong> The Ngware Bicycle Transporters Youth Group in Kisumu Kenya earn a living by providing both cargo and passenger services using bicycles. For <a href="index.php?option=com_content&amp;view=article&amp;id=101:transport-services&amp;catid=23:issues&amp;Itemid=199">more information about the development and organisation of this organisation click here</a></p></div> Cross Border Trade 2014-12-01T16:14:01+00:00 2014-12-01T16:14:01+00:00 http://www.ifrtd.org/index.php/issues-2/77-cross-border-trade Super User ngugimode@yahoo.com <div class="feed-description"><p><img alt="coming-soon" src="images/ifrtd/coming-soon.jpg" height="257" width="734" /></p></div> <div class="feed-description"><p><img alt="coming-soon" src="images/ifrtd/coming-soon.jpg" height="257" width="734" /></p></div> Decentralisation 2014-12-01T16:18:39+00:00 2014-12-01T16:18:39+00:00 http://www.ifrtd.org/index.php/issues-2/78-decentralisation Super User ngugimode@yahoo.com <div class="feed-description"><p><img alt="coming-soon" src="images/ifrtd/coming-soon.jpg" height="257" width="734" /></p></div> <div class="feed-description"><p><img alt="coming-soon" src="images/ifrtd/coming-soon.jpg" height="257" width="734" /></p></div> Disability 2014-12-01T16:18:59+00:00 2014-12-01T16:18:59+00:00 http://www.ifrtd.org/index.php/issues-2/79-disability Super User ngugimode@yahoo.com <div class="feed-description"><p><img alt="coming-soon" src="images/ifrtd/coming-soon.jpg" height="257" width="734" /></p></div> <div class="feed-description"><p><img alt="coming-soon" src="images/ifrtd/coming-soon.jpg" height="257" width="734" /></p></div>